At European level, the use of nuclear energy by the 28 European Union member states is governed by the Treaty Establishing the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). Council Directive 2009/71/Euratom establishing a Community framework for the nuclear safety of nuclear installations (amended by Directive 2014/78/Euratom) and Council Directive 2011/70/Euratom establishing a Community framework for the responsible and safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste are particularly important. Directive 2013/59 Euratom establishes radiation protection requirements to further improve protection against occupational, public or medical exposure.