The Länder, as the competent licensing and supervisory authorities, implement the nuclear energy legislation on behalf of the Federation; this is known as execution by the Länder on federal commission (Bundesauftragsverwaltung). The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) is responsible for supervising the legality and expediency of the action taken by the Länder. In the exercise of their statutory responsibilities, the competent federal and Land authorities may consult with experts.

Various specialised commissions advise the BMU on issues of fundamental significance and on the initiation of more comprehensive technical safety measures.