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European Law

At European level, the use of nuclear energy by the 28 European Union member states is governed by the Treaty Establishing the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). Council Directive 2009/71/Euratom establishing a Community framework for the nuclear safety of nuclear installations (amended by Directive 2014/78/Euratom) and Council Directive 2011/70/Euratom establishing a Community framework for the responsible and safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste are particularly important. Directive 2013/59 Euratom establishes radiation protection requirements to further improve protection against occupational, public or medical exposure.